Saturday, November 30, 2019
Essay, Research Paper Tupac Shakur was born in New York City. His female parent # 8217 ; s name was Afeni Skakur. She was a member of the Black Panther Party. She was pregnant with him while in prison for bombardment charges. Tupac comes from the Incas significance reflecting snake and Shakur is Arabic intending # 8220 ; thankfull to god # 8221 ; . In 1986 the Skakur household moved to Baltimore. In Baltimore Tupac enrolled in the Baltimore School for Arts. At this school he writes his first blame vocal under the name MC New York. Then in June of 1988 the Shakur # 8217 ; s moved to Marin City California. Shortly after traveling to Marin City Tupac moved in with a neighbour. This is when he starts selling drugs. In Augest of 1988 Tupac # 8217 ; s measure pa Mutulu Shakur is sentenced to 60 old ages in gaol for his engagement in a 1981 armored-car robbery. Tupac eventually stops selling drugs. In 1990 he joins a blame group called the Digital Underground. We will write a custom essay sample on The Life And Death Of Tupac Shakur or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He joins the group as a roadie, terpsichorean and rapper. Tupac is a large hit wit the group and he get down to work on his solo album. In 1991 he eventually achieves single acknowledgment wit his first solo album titled # 8220 ; 2PACALYPSE NOW # 8221 ; .The most successful paths of this album were # 8220 ; Trapped # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; Brenda # 8217 ; Got A Baby # 8221 ; . These two paths showed that Tupac had a soft side. In 1992 Shakur made his film introduction in # 8220 ; Juice # 8221 ; .And so in 1993 Tupac stared in his 2nd film # 8220 ; Poetic Justice # 8221 ; . This film besides starred Janet Jackson. After the film Poetic Justice Tupac was eventually acquiring recognized around the universe as a film star non merely a mobster rapper. In 1994 Tupac made another album called # 8220 ; Thug Life # 8221 ; . This was non a solo album he worked wit rappers Syce, Mopreme, and The Rated R. This album showed that he was a West-side mobster non an East-side mobster no more. In the same twelvemonth of the release of the album he starred in another film called # 8220 ; Above the Rim # 8221 ; . In November of 1994 Shakur # 8217 ; s New York sex assault test is opened. In the same month while coming out of a Ill-famed B.I.G picture shoot Tupac was shot in an evident robbery effort outside the music studio. Tupac blamed the shot on the Notorious B.I.G. Just one twenty-four hours after the hiting Tupac was convicted of sexually mistreating a adult females he had invited to his hotel room. He was besides charged with sodomy and arms charges. In 1995 he released his 2nd solo album called # 8220 ; Me Against The World # 8221 ; this was a multi-million-selling album. In February of 1995 he was sentenced in New York to four and a half old ages in gaol for sexually maltreatment. In May of 1995 Shakur long clip girlfriend Keisha Morris. In October of 1995 Shakur is released from gaol on bond after functioning 8 months. In 1996 Shakur released another album # 8220 ; All Eyess On Me # 8221 ; . This album debuted on the Billboard charts as figure 1.It went on to sell about 5 million transcripts. The vocals # 8220 ; How Do You Desire It # 8221 ; and California Love # 8221 ; were on the top 10 Billboard Charts for months. Then in October he starred in another film called # 8220 ; Gang Related # 8221 ; . On September 10 of 1996 Shakur was on his manner to a nine called 667 when he was shot. his record manufacturer Suge Knight merely got a caput graze. Then on September 13 Shakur was pronounced dead at 4:03 autopsy. Not much was known about the decease of Tupac. The bulls neer found the individual who killed him but they think a member of a rival pack called the Crips did it. After Tupac # 8217 ; s decease many of his fans couldn # 8217 ; t except his decease so they started rumours of him forging his on decease. Just a few months subsequently another one of his albums came out. It was called # 8220 ; R U Still Down # 8221 ; . Tupac neer had a opportunity to acquire rid of his thug image. He died at the age of 25. Many people think he could of restarted the Black Panthers. Tupac was a really originative adult male. Here is on of his verse forms: by Tupac Shakur Today is filled with choler, fueled with concealed hatred. Scared of being outkast, afraid of common destiny. Today is build on calamities which no 1 want # 8217 ; s to face. Nightmares to humanity and morally disgraced. Tonight is filled with Rage, force in the air. Childs bred with pitilessness cause no 1 at place attentions. Tonight I lay my caput down but the force per unit area neer stops, cognizing that my saneness content when I # 8217 ; m droped. But tomorrow I see alteration, a opportunity to construct a new, physique on spirit purpose of bosom and thoughts based on truth. Tomorrow I wake with 2nd air current and strong because of pride. I know I fought with all my bosom to maintain the dream alive. by jay12321 @ aol.com
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
David Pham Tran Essays (1374 words) - Fiction, Rhetorical Techniques David Pham Tran AP Lit How to Read Literature Like a Professor Every Trip Is a Quest (Except When It's Not) Chapter one talks about the 5 most important concepts in literature. The first concept is a quester, the main character of the story, who will have to go through challenges through out the story. The second concept is a destination for the quester to travel to. In order start a journey; the quester is required to have a reason to go, which is the third concept. While traveling to the destination, the quester will have to go through challenges and trials, which would be the fourth concept. Finally, the fifth concept is the real reason behind the quest. The real reason is always about self-knowledge and it never relates to the stated reason. The quester can only realize this after they completed the quest. Nice to Eat With You: Acts of Communion This chapter talks about how every meal scenes in literature represents communions. Communion may often relate to religious beliefs but in literature communion doesn't always have to relate to religion. Often eating scene is very uninteresting; therefore, the writer would have to create interesting situations and compelling interactions between the characters during the scene. These scenes are very hard to write in literature but they are also very important because they present important components of the story to the readers. For example, meal scenes can show the plot; themes; and conflicts and relationship between the characters. A meal might seem like a very boring scene to include in a story but it can have a positive or negative connotation behind, depends on the conversation. Nice to Eat You: Acts of Vampires This Chapter talks about how writers sublimate the evil and darker side of human through scary stories and monsters, such as ghosts, werewolves, and especially vampires. This method is most commonly used during the 19th century, in the work of Victorian writers such as Stevenson, Dickens, Stoker, J. S. Le Fanu, and Henry James. During this time, sex and sexuality were considered taboo subjects in literature so these writers found away around it through horror stories. The writers also criticize society through their symbolical horror stories. Vampires represent the selfishness in every person because Dracula and vampires exploit others to survive. Horror stories are never meant to scare the audience or to talk about the monsters, it's actually about the writer's criticism of society. Now, Where Have I Seen Her Before? According to this chapter, there is never an entirely original work in literature. Stories and poems always build on one each other; therefore there is always a connection between works from different writers to one another. Just like art, writers get their inspiration from other works and create their own piece. This chapter also suggests that in order to excel our understanding of a novel, we have to find connections and connect it to other works. We would have a better experience and see the different sublimations and layers in the work. There is always a relationship between literature works. Beginning readers might be at a disadvantage at connecting literature compare to professors, but it is easier when knowing that the relationship is there. It's More Than Just Rain or Snow This chapter talks about how the weather doesn't just describe the setting of the story but it also has a deeper meaning to it. Snow, sun, warmth, and rain can be used as symbolism, foreshadowing, and other plot device. Rain can mean many things such as misery, isolation or unification. Rain can also bring back life, for instant, spring came after the rain and flood in Noah. Rain also represents cleansing as the water washes all the dirt away. Fog can also represent mystery and misery. Snow has both negative and positive meanings. Snow can mean death, filthy or joy, playful, and inviting. In literature, what weather symbolizes depends on the writer because the writer has the power to make it negative or positive. Is That a Symbol? According to this chapter, a symbol could probably be anything if you really analyze it. Sometimes readers confuse symbols with allegories because they are similar. An allegory only stand for one other thing, "one-for-one", while a
Friday, November 22, 2019
The accounting for research and development deals with activities that improves the processes and product. The terms of research and development is used in the standard with the following meaning. Research is the planned and the original investigation, which is undertaken by the entity to gain technical and scientific knowledge and understanding. On the other hand, development is the application of the knowledge gained or using the finding from the research for producing improved or new product, processes, services and material. The development is undertaken prior to the commencement of the usage and commercial production. The activities encompassed in the research and development is difficult to identify (Barge-Gil & LÃ ³pez, 2014). Ã The definition provided assist the reporting entities in classifying their activities under the research and development. The distinction of the activities are based on the organization types, types of the project undertaken and the types of business. The medium sized firm had confusion about the formal definition of Research and development while the small firms understood the concept of R & D in an informal way. The FRS Ã¢â¬â 13 deals with the accounting for the activities related to the research and development. The activities related to research and development are distinguished from those activities that are non-research based because of the absence and presence of Ã¢â¬Ëappreciable elements of innovationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bebbington et al., 2014). The core accounting rule in the area of research and development are the expenditures that is to be charged as an expense when incurred. The expenditure, which is incurred on research, is not directly related to the future economic benefits and capitalizing the Ã¢â¬Ëcost that does not comply with the accrual conceptÃ¢â¬â¢. The expenditure related to the research, development is written off to the account of profit and loss, and this is because the expenditure on the research does not provide the entity with the direct future economic benefits. The expenditure on the development cost has to be written off as the expense incurred to the profit and loss account. However, there is the option of deferring the expenditure incurred in development and it can be carried out as the intangible assets on the entity meeting some criteria. The research and the development costs are need to be separated in order to achieve the reasonable degree of comparability between the accounting period of the same entity and between the entities (Bowen et al., 2013). For sustaining the dynamic economy of New Zealand, the research and development is an important concept. The socio economic issues of New Zealand is addressed sing the accounting for R & D. The literature review is provided on the expenses relating to R & D. The harmonization in the accounting treatment of the research and development is unlikely to happen. The capitalization of R & D has always remain a controversial issue. The revised International accounting standard 38 make the distinction between the development and the research phase. The expenditure of carrying out research should be treated as an expense (Deegan, 2013). A reporting entity cannot demonstrate during the research phase of the project that whether the intangible assets are capable of generating the probable future economic benefits or not. The expenditure on research should be recognize as expense and there is the need to recognize the assets arising from the research. The intangible assets needs to be recognized in the development phase if the entity is able to demonstrate the ability to sell or use the assets. The entity also needs to demonstrate the whether the intangible assets are technical feasible for using or selling purpose. The ability to measure the expenditure related to the development to of the intangible assets should also needs to be demonstrated. The treatment of research and accounting provides for the flexibility between the choice of capitalizing and expensing. As a result of which, the companies that are more leveraged are encouraged to activate their cost related to R & D rather than expensing them. The managers ar e motivated to prevail such accounting decisions over the other. It is argued that the high debt level forces the company to capitalize on the expenditure of R & D. The choice available to the company because of this decreases the debt ratio and increases the accounting profit. The firms are encouraged to make the accounting decisions that are income increasing (Daske et al., 2013). The accounting for research and development has the implication on commercial environment in terms of the accountability initiatives. The development and the research makes the strategic focus rather than the university accounting and the professional curricula. The developments provide the platform for the wider interest of public and this improves the relevance of the information to enhance the process of decision-making. The various business leaders and the accounting profession has embraced different types of corporate reporting. This is known as the integrated reporting. The research and development would enrich the appreciation and understanding of the accounting academics of New Zealand for the achievements and efforts of the early builder sin the accounting field (Dinh et al., 2015). The basic issue concerning the accounting for research and development is the expenditure. The expenditure associated with the research and development is that there is no certainty in the future benefits and it makes it difficult to treat and record the expenditure as an asset. Because of this, the GAAP has made it mandatory to charge the expenditure as an expense incurred. However, this cannot be regarded as entirely pervasive as there are some limitations to it (Mynatt & Schroeder, 2012). The current tax treatment about research and development is uncertain. The measures of taxation does not have anything to address the uncertainty. The uncertainty over the treatment of taxation of research and development is not addressed sing the current measures. The main area of concern is the revenue and capital R & D expenditure. The ambiguity in the treatment of taxes comes from whether the cost are classified as capital or revenue. If the taxpayer has enduring benefit, then the cost is classified as expenditure and otherwise it is classified as the revenue expenditures. It is not clear in the tax law of New Zealand when the expenditure related to the R & D is immediately deductible and when the expenditures are not immediately deductible. This comes with the risk of disputes that are potential in nature. This risk of disputes exist with the Inland Revenue. When the taxes are underpaid, this comes with the risk of use of money interest and penalties (Healy & Palepu, 2012). The method of accrual accounting in New Zealand is faced with a number of issues. The reporting entity encounters with a number of issues when they intend to correctly identify the cost related to the research and development. The accounting treatment of the cost for the purpose of tax is also the major issue faced by the reporting entity. The financial reporting standard relies on the accounting treatment for the amortization of the development expenditure at the end of the process of research and development. The development of the New Zealand equivalent to the IFRS for the purpose of application by the entities of New Zealand. This would also include references to the regulatory environment. The harmonization of the financial reporting standard by liaising with the Australian accounting standard Board. There are also new development in the business environment (www.ifrs.org, 2016). The tax rule concerning the research and development is about the cashing out off the losses from taxes. The companies building the service or product would make the expense until the development of the product and it will make losses until the revenue is being generated. The losses attributable to the development would be carried forward to the next year when the company starts making profit by selling the developed products. The changes allows the tax loss due to research and development to cash out their loss, which arises from the expenditure of the research, and development. The new development focuses on the newly started companies who are engaged in the intensive research and development. This is intended to reduce the exposure of the startups to the market failure and the distortion in the taxes, which arises for the treatment of the losses attributing from taxes in the current scenario (Kelsey, 2015). Expenditure accruing to certain types of expenditures are not included in the measurement and the cost that are claimed by the company must be related to the research and development. The cost might include office cost relating to R & D, wages, salaries and the contractors cost. It also include the depreciation of the assets that are solely used for the purpose of research and development. The newly developed regime allows cash out losses. However, there are some limits imposed by the regime. The cost related to the research and development shall comprise of all the activities that are directly attributable to the activities undertaken under the research and development. Ã The cost needs to be allocated to such activities on a reasonable basis. The research and development costs between the entities should be separated to make a reasonable degree of comparability. The distinction should be made between the development cost and research cost. The proposal is to address the uncertainty by clarifying the revenue or capital boundary. This is done by allowing the taxpayers to follow such accounting treatment where the expenditure related to the R & D is immediately written off for accounting. This will immediately deducted for the taxation purpose. Any types of expenses incurred in undertaking and carrying out the research are deductible immediately for the taxation purpose. There are some criteria for the treatment of the expenditure on development and this decides whether it will be immediately deductible or not. This will provide the payers of taxes with more certainty and the result would be the fewer disputed between the Inland Revenue and the taxpayers. This will help the businesses to focus less on the tax affairs and enable them to concentrate on their businesses (Knechel et al., 2012). The adoption of International reporting standard in New Zealand has reassessed the role of financial reporting standard board (FRSB). The FRSB needs to add material, which would describe the applicability and the scope of the standard in New Zealand. Some of the arguments can be made about the future developments. Due to the cost incurred in the research and development, the economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity; therefore, it can be argued that rather than treating the cost as an expense, it should be treated as assets. This is so because it is align with the assets definition prescribed by the International accounting standard framework for the preparation and the presentation of the financial statements and with the statements of principles. There is a need to provide accountants in New Zealand with more information so that the situation is clarified. The development and the adoption to the international reporting standard will make possible the comparability and th e universality of the accounting treatment of the research and development internationally and regionally (Samkin & Deegan, 2012). The accounting standard board of New Zealand issues the accounting standard in New Zealand. The profit entities reports under the International financial reporting standard (IFRS) of New Zealand. These are the standards developed by the accounting standard board of New Zealand. The External reporting board does the approval of these standards. The entities are adapting their financial function as per the standard to achieve the efficiency for long term and met the requirement of the standards. The entities, which are currently reporting under the old GAAP, will need to be adapt to the New Zealand International financial reporting standard. However, the International financial reporting standard of New Zealand and International financial reporting standard are different (Naranjo et al., 2015). The former also deals with the domestic standards and this deal with the areas that are not dealt under the IFRS. The transitional requirements of both the standard are different (Nobes 2014).The framework of accounting standard at the current scenario is implemented in three stages. In the first stage, the entities which mainly involves changes to the profit entities accounting standard. The second stage involves changes for public entities. Thirdly, the changes to the accounting standard of the profit and public entities. The companies that is the reporting entities are significantly affected by the accounting of the research and development. However, it is more confined to the entities engaged in the research and development. The purpose of the report is to provide the insight into the accounting for the research and development in New Zealand. There are some gaps as per the literature review. The analysis presented in the reports suggest that the financial reporting regime of the international accounting standard is viable and is an alternative to the existing financial regime of New Zealand. Adopting to the International Financial reporting standards would provide the country with the long-term net benefits. The country should adopt to the IFRS in a manner, which would preserve their commitment to such financial reporting standard, which is sector neutral for New Zealand. New Zealand should look forward to ensure the high standing in the long term and should not be complacent. The country can be an important contributor in the development of the internationally accepted financial reporting in the accounting of research and development. Barge-Gil, A., & LÃ ³pez, A. (2014). R&D determinants: Accounting for the differences between research and development.Ã research Policy,Ã 43(9), 1634-1648. Bebbington, J., Unerman, J., & O'Dwyer, B. (2014).Ã Sustainability accounting and accountability. Routledge. Bowen, R. M., Jollineau, J., & Margheim, L. (2013). Corporation's Intellectual Property: Accounting For Research And Development Under US GAAP Versus IFRS.Ã Journal of Business Case Studies (Online),Ã 9(4), 321. Daske, H., Hail, L., Leuz, C., & Verdi, R. (2013). Adopting a label: Heterogeneity in the economic consequences around IAS/IFRS adoptions.Ã Journal of Accounting Research,Ã 51(3), 495-547. Deegan, C. (2013).Ã Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education New Zealand. Dinh, T., Eierle, B., Schultze, W., & Steeger, L. (2015). Research and development, uncertainty, and analystsÃ¢â¬â¢ forecasts: the case of IAS 38.Ã Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting,Ã 26(3), 257-293. Dinh, T., Kang, H., & Schultze, W. (2015). Capitalizing Research & Development: Signaling or Earnings Management?.Ã European Accounting Review, 1-29. Healy, P. M., & Palepu, K. G. (2012).Ã Business Analysis Valuation: Using Financial Statements. Cengage Learning. IFRS - Home. (2016).Ã Ifrs.org. Retrieved 6 November 2016, from https://www.ifrs.org/Pages/default.aspx International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). (2016).Ã Iasplus.com. Retrieved 6 November 2016, from https://www.iasplus.com/en/resources/ifrsf/iasb-ifrs-ic/iasb Kelsey, J. (2015).Ã The New Zealand experiment: A world model for structural adjustment?. Bridget Williams Books. Knechel, W. R., Sharma, D. S., & Sharma, V. D. (2012). Non?audit services and knowledge spillovers: Evidence from New Zealand.Ã Journal of Business Finance & Accounting,Ã 39(1?2), 60-81. Mynatt, P. G., & Schroeder, R. G. (2012). The comparative reporting impact of the FASB and IASB treatments of research and development expenditures.Ã Journal of Business and Accounting,Ã 5(1), 50. Naranjo, P. L., Saavedra, D., & Verdi, R. S. (2015). Financial reporting regulation and financing decisions.Ã Available at SSRN 2147838. Nobes, C., (2014).Ã International Classification of Financial Reporting 3e. Routledge. Reeve, J. M., Warren, C. S., Duchac, J. E., Du, X., & Yu, Z. (2012).Ã Principles of Accounting. South-Western Cengage Learning. Samkin, G., & Deegan, C. (2012).Ã New Zealand financial accounting. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
African Music - Essay Example Placing African music in an historical and social context, brings to the fore the compiling of notes on the social context of African music; on African history; on the popularization of African music and on the instruments and styles of African music. The following text has been put together and a bibliography and appropriate reference is supplied at the end of the article. Africa covers about 11,714,000 square miles (30,339,000 square kilometers), more than a fifth of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s total land area. The continent is an enormous plateau, most of which is covered by deserts, forests and grasslands. It is this vast mass of land that held the immense treasure of Africa called music. Music has been culturally part of and developed in Africa for thousands of years. Its wide range of styles evidently showed much of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s landscape. In northern Africa, music follows Arab traditions that consist mainly of chants and the use of various northern instruments but as shown but African music has also spread southward and influenced the music of peoples in parts of Chad, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Business Strategy and Organization - Essay Example The strategic coalition with industry's professional's commitment to delivering the right manufacturing product to targeted consumer with cost effective approaches (Klijn 2007). Therefore, the current market industry efforts are in the strategic management performance with regards to a focused platform of customer satisfaction. The approach is a review of the competitive advantages of the overall site process methods. The measures make it clear that what are the best practices to use in today's social networking industry from the original concept of stages of quality strategic management system. The approach will outline the fundamental concept of acknowledging the applied quality strategic management which would aim at the consumers. The defining of the competitor edge provides the platform to reassure that the gained research data on networking is implemented successfully. The current market industry analysis for competitive organizations is to acquire an IT structure that delivers results in a business application industry through phases. The advantages are in the platform of using a synergy with the SaaS innovation, in order to form creative IT technology. This approach provides for a method to increasing sales in the targeted market. The IT technology offered by the industry is to present the product/service to a winning strategy for a long lasting effort to reach the market industry standards goals. The current industry role in modeling the three main phases of outputting the business applications for consumers are inputs, performances, and outcomes: Inputs Performances Outcomes Entry of user and passwords Quantity of work Confirmation of authorization Time assess to transfer Quality of work Concluded access Security Safety rules/regulation Variety of Benefits High level Platform Game Levels Extended areas of focus data Key areas sorted Demonstrated ability Data relayed New level fields Manageability Signed off conclusion of data Joined links Faster deliver Visual data displayed Figure A. According to Lynch's (2009) article, the Dell Corporation focused on low cost leadership in the computer industry that relied on operations and manufacturing skills. This approach provides the fundamental concept of current market industry trends to be succeeding in business on different platforms. The industry target market that represents businesses sizes of 500k-1million with a customer base of 3,500 to 8,000 can proactively hone on the beneficial aspects to delivering applications that address market concerns (Informationweek.com 2009). The industry competitive review of the concepts presented the streamline of criterion that allows a steady formation to synergize the core attributes of the product and service. The strategic fundamental aspect of establishing a strong IT strategic management scope within the organization is to achieve the desired goals and results. The IT strategic management scope can accomplish tasks outside of the normal activities within the confinement of the organization to acquire the outcome. The SaaS objective in the current market is too solely initiative IT management protocols for a successful implementation of a proposed plan initiative. The business identified industry competit
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Function and Process of Perception Essay The function and process of perception can vary depending on a particular state of consciousness. Normal waking consciousness is a mental state that encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonably alert (Morris Maisto, 2010, p. 123). Since this state of mind expires after an amount of time, other forms of consciousness follow; whether naturally or self-induced. While sensory data is inevitable, the brains interpretation and perception of such stimuli during an altered state of consciousness will differ from that of waking consciousness. This mini-paper will elaborate on the effects of perception, including its process and function, related to three altered states of consciousness. The first being sleep and dreams, next drug-altered consciousness, followed by hypnosis. Before discussing the effects of perception while in an altered state, an overview of the basic function and process of perception in a normal setting is needed. Sensation is the bodys initial encounter with a sensory experience. This begins when the sensory receptors receive energy from a particular stimulus, which trigger receptor cells. The physical energy is converted into electrochemicals, then passes along sensory nerves, to the central nervous system where the brain receives the energy as a detailed message. However, not all physical energy produces a sensation. A minimum intensity, termed absolute threshold, must be achieved in order to produce a sensation. Perception takes place when the message reaches the brain and is then deciphered. Here, the sensory information is organized and interpreted to be made sense of. Using sensory information as raw material, the brain creates perceptual experiences that go beyond what is sensed directly (Morris Maisto, 2010, p. 06). Again, this is the series of events in the normal waking state of consciousness. During an altered state of consciousness the effect, process, and/or function of perception may vary. Sleep is the bodys natural way of recharging itself mentally and physically. Research has shown that adequate sleep contributes to cognitive functioning such as enhanced creativity, decision-making, and problem-solving skills, and also crucial to the formation of long-term memories (Morris Maisto, 2010). These are some of the basis of perception, hence the reason for its peak during waking consciousness. REM sleep, or paradoxical sleep, ironically, is a close resemblance to waking consciousness. However, REM is a deep sleep, it is difficult to wake the person, and is when most dreaming takes place. Dreams, in a way, could be considered perception. The brain subconsciously interprets information without the need of sensory stimulation. Psychologists define dreams as visual and auditory experiences that our minds create during sleep (Morris Maisto, 2010, p. 131). This is an example of a natural occurrence of altering consciousness. Drug-altered consciousness on the other hand, is self-induced. Psychoactive drugs are substances that change peoples moods, perceptions, mental functioning, or behavior (Morris Maisto, 2010, p. 134). Drugs are taken to purposely alter ones state of consciousness. To analyze the effect drugs have on the nervous system, three categories of drugs will be mentioned: depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. Depressants slow behavior, thinking, and perception by increasing or decreasing nerve impulses. Stimulants, such as amphetamines, produce feelings of optimism as well as never-ending energy by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. These drugs cause the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve endings (Weil, n. d. ). Lastly, hallucinogens distort the users senses and induce perceptual changes by causing experiences that resemble hallucinations. A positive for psychoactive drugs is the ability to explore different parts of the brain while in this altered state of consciousness. Although, the negative consequences of abuse and addiction are high risk. The last section is a technique that has been used for centuries for positivity, without the risk. Hypnosis is a trancelike state in which a person responds readily to suggestions (Morris Maisto, 2010, p. 50). This is an altered state of consciousness that works like sleep. The subconscious person receives a suggestion, which acts as a stimulus, and is sent to and interpreted by the brain. Hypnosis can help ease pain as well as cure an addiction. In conclusion, perceptual experiences vary in different forms of consciousness. Whether it be the sensory organs or the brain itself, interpretation of the coded message is somehow changed. The process and function of perception in waking consciousness differs from those while in an altered state of consciousness.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Bob Dylan and the Media Throughout most of Bob Dylan's career as a musician, radio was the main form of media that was used to convey his message to the public. From the first album in the early 1960's to the 1990's, radio was and still is the main way in which the public receives his lyrics. It also remains to be the way Dylan is able to communicate his messages to us. My question is; How have the outlets of information changed through the years, and which method of the media is more effective? Is one better than the other for the purposes of relaying Dylan's messages to the public? Bob Dylan is famous for his straight forward and bold lyrics. Since the beginning of his long career as an artist, people of the United States and all across the world have not only listened to his musical talent but respected his ideas as a leader. Bob Dylan, like so many other musicians of his day, got his start on the radio. This was a way for musicians to relay messages to the rest of society. This gave people all across the world a feeling of belonging. It provided a basis for people to share common interests with others across the world. Music concerts was another way of passing Dylan's messages to the public. A typical concert performed by Dylan included fifty thousand people in an arena, and another fifty thousand outside of the gates. For the lucky ones, those which were able to enter the concert (either by paying or sneaking in), the concerts are a way which everyone is able to receive the desired message at precisely the same time. Another positive idea about concerts is; by watching someone whom they have been listening to for years, people get a sense of hope, inspiration, and the face behind the name. The third source of media that Dylan used to communicate his thoughts and music ability, was through albums. Over the course of Dylan's long career, he has released more than 40 albums. Starting in the 1960's and ending in the 1990's, when the compact disc was introduced and gained popularity. An album is a way of playing back individual songs, simply by releasing the needle on whatever song you would like played. As albums became more and more popular, Dylan was now able to convey his message to a wider variety of people.